Determinants of Hardiness among Representatives of Three Generations in Modern Russia

Keywords: hardiness, individual values, meaning-in-life orientations, economic attitudes, intergenerational differences, generation X, generation Y, baby boomers


Introduction. Generational differences have been scarcely investigated. The factors that help individuals to cope with stressful factors and increasing tension are worth consideration in the context of present-day reality. This study addresses the predictors of hardiness in different generations of Russians. Methods. A sample of respondents from various regions of the Russian Federation, aged from 18 to 75 years, took part in the empirical study of values, subjective economic well-being, and hardiness factors. The study used the following techniques: (a) the PVQ-R technique for measuring individual values, (b) the Test of Hardiness by D. A. Leont'ev, (c) the Subjective Economic Well-being technique by V. A. Khashchenko, and (d) the Meaning-in-Life Orientations test (MOL) by D. A. Leont'ev), the modified version of the Purpose-in-Life test (PIL). Results. Representatives of generation Y have a higher overall level of hardiness. The external locus of control influences hardiness in all the three examined generations. This influence is positive for generations X and Y, and negative for baby boomers. Economic anxiety has a negative impact on hardiness in representatives of generations X, Y, and baby boomers. The values of individualism – ‘independence: thinking’ and ‘achievement’ – influence hardiness in representatives of generations X and Y. Discussion. Increased dissatisfaction with financial situation, the inability to save money, and increased economic anxiety decrease the level of hardiness in Russians. The increase in financial well-being can contribute to an increase in hardiness across all the groups of respondents. Independence in the choice of actions, ambitious goals in life, the desire to be successful, and the need for feeling safe and secure increase the ability to withstand stress among representatives of generations X and Y.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Vera A. Fedotova, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm)

master of psychology, postgraduate, senior  lecturer, School of Management, Faculty of Economics, Management, and Business Informatics


Anderson, H. J., Baur, J. E., Griffith, J. A., & Buckley, M. R. (2017). What works for you may not work for (Gen)Me: Limitations of present leadership theories for the new generation. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(1), 245–260. doi:

Artsimovich, I. V. (2017). Current generation: challenges to society or time? Interaktivnaya nauka (Interactive Science), 2(12), 119–121. doi: (in Russ.).

Astashova, Yu. V. (2014). A theory of generations in marketing. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo Gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya “Ekonomika i menedzhment” (Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series: Economics and Management), 8(1), 108–114. (in Russ.).

Bogomaz, S. A., & Balanev, D. Yu. (2009). Hardiness as a component of an individual’s innovative potential. Sibirskiĭ psikhologicheskii zhurnal (Siberian Journal of Psychology), 32, 23–28. (in Russ.).

Chernikov, B. V. (2014). Differentiation of labor values among generations of modern workers. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Tomsk State University Journal), 385, 153–158. (in Russ.).

Gurova, I. M., & Evdokimova, S. Sh. (2016). A theory of generations as a tool for analysis and development of labor potential. MIR: Modernizatsiya. Innovatsii. Razvitie (MIR: Modernization. Innovation. Research), 7(3), 150–159. doi: (in Russ.).

Haeberle, K., Herzber, J., & Hobbs, T. (2009). Leading the multigenerational work force. A proactive approach will cultivate employee engagement and productivity. Healthcare Executive, 24(5), 62–67.

Kabanchenko, E. A. (2017). The phenomenon of hardiness in Russian research. In N. A. Lebedev (Ed.), Scholar forum: Pedagogy and psychology: Proceedings of the 13th international theoretical and practical conference (pp. 103–106). Moscow: International Center for Science and Education. (in Russ.).

Khashchenko, V. A. (2005). Socio-psychological determinants of an individual’s economic identity. In A. L. Zhuravlev & A. B. Kupreichenko (Eds.), Issues of economic psychology (pp. 513–556). Moscow: Institute of Psychology, RAS. (in Russ.).

Khashchenko, V. A. (2011). Subjective economic well-being and its measurement: Development of the questionnaire and its validation. Eksperimental'naya psikhologiya (Experimental Psychology), 4(1), 106–127. (in Russ.).

Khomyakova, E. I. (2011). Generation Y in the context of social interaction in modern society. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta (Bulletin of Tomsk Polytechnic University), 319(6), 153–156. (in Russ.).

Khromov, A. B. (2012). The attributive style and subjective well-being among representatives of three generations of Russians in the era of Russia’s cultural transformation. Vestnik Kurganskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Fiziologiya, psikhologiya i meditsina (Bulletin of the Kurgan State University. Series Physiology, Psychology, and Medicine), 23, 98–104. (in Russ.).

Klimov, A. A. (2010). Associations between the structure of value orientations and hardiness in students. In V. A. Kuz'mishchev, O. A. Mazur, T. N. Ryabchenko, & A. A. Shatokhin (Eds.), Youth and science: Reality and the future: Proceedings of the 3rd International theoretical and practical conference: Vol. 3 (pp. 265–266). Nevinnomyssk: NIEP. Retrieved from (in Russ.).

Klimov, A. A. (2011a). Associations between hardiness and personal values in university students. Young researchers for the regions. Proceedings of the all-Russian theoretical conference: Vol. 2 (pp. 262–264). Vologda: VSTU. (in Russ.).

Klimov, A. A. (2011b). Hardiness and its associations with personal values of students. Vestnik Samarskoi gumanitarnoi akademii. Seriya: Psikhologiya (Bulletin of Samara Academy for the Humanities. A series of Psychology), 2(10), 14–23. (in Russ.).

Kobasa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., & Kahn, S. (1982). Hardiness and health: A prospective study. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 42(1), 168–177. doi:

Kuz'mina, E. I., & Moroz, O. S. (2010). Freedom from frustration and hardiness. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologicheskie nauki (Bulletin of Moscow State Regional University. Series Psychology), 2, 5–8. (in Russ.).

Leont'ev, D. A. (2011). New reference points for understanding personality in psychology: From the necessary towards the possible. Voprosy psikhologii, 1, 3–27. (in Russ.).

Leont'ev, D. A., & Rasskazova, E. I. (2006). The test of hardiness. Moscow: Smysl. (in Russ.).

Macky, К., Gardner, D., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Generational differences at work: Introduction and overview. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(8), 857–861. doi:

Mannheim, K. (1952). The problem of generations. In P. Kecskemeti (Ed.), Essays on the sociology of knowledge (pp. 276–320). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Murphy, E. S., Gibson, J. W., & Greenwood, R. A. (2010). Analyzing generational values among managers and non-managers for sustainable organizational effectiveness. SAM Advance Management Journal, 75(1), 33–55.

Ozkan, M., & Solmaz, B. (2015). The changing face of the employees – generation Z and their perceptions of work (A study applied to university students). Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, 476–483. doi:

Postnikova, M. I. (2016). Characteristics of hardiness in youth. Nauchnyĭ dialog (Scientific Dialogue), 1(49), 298–310. (in Russ.).

Rudolph, C. W., Rauvola, R. S., & Zacher, H. (2018). Leadership and generations at work: A critical review. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 44–57. doi:

Shamis, E., & Antipov, A. (n.d.). A theory of generations. Retrieved from (in Russ.).

Shvarts, Sh., Butenko, T. P., Sedova, D. S., & Lipatova, A. S. (2012). Refined theory of basic individual values: An application in Russia. Psikhologiya. Zhurnal Vysshei shkoly ekonomiki (Psychology, Journal of the Higher School of Economics), 9(2), 43–70. (in Russ.).

Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow.

Vanakova, G. V. (2014). Psychological support for the development of hardiness in students (Doctoral dissertation). Sholem Aleichem Amur State University, Birobidzhan. (in Russ.).

Volkova, N. V., & Chiker, V. A. (2016). Career motivation in the context of the theory of generations: Results of an empirical study. Vestnik SPbGU. Menedzhment (Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Management), 4, 79–105. doi: (in Russ.).

Williams, K. C., Page, R. A., Petrosky, A. R., & Hernandez, E. H. (2010). Multi-generational marketing: Descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(2), 115–132. Retrieved from:

Wong, I. A., Wan, Y. K. P., & Gao, J. H. (2017). How to attract and retain Generation Y employees? An exploration of career choice and the meaning of work. Tourism Management Perspectives, 23, 140–150. doi:

Yang, S.-B., & Guy, M. E. (2006). Genxers versus Boomers: Work motivators and management implications. Public Performance & Management Review, 29(3), 267–284. doi:

Yusoff, W. F. W., & Kian, T. S. (2013). Generation differences in work motivation: From developing country perspective. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2(4), 97–103.

How to Cite
Fedotova, V. A. (2020). Determinants of Hardiness among Representatives of Three Generations in Modern Russia. Russian Psychological Journal, 17(1), 74-91.
Social psychology