Characteristics of Women’s Identities in Crisis and Inter-crisis Age Periods
Introduction. This paper examines the characteristics of identities in women of various ages and ethnic groups in crisis and inter-crisis age periods. The novelty of the research lies in studying the identities of women of Russian, Buryat, and mixed ethnic groups in crisis periods regardless of their age.
Methods. The study used the following techniques: (a) the Twenty Statements Test developed by M. Kuhn and T. MacPartland, (b) the Life Line technique developed by A. Kronik, and (c) the SEI test by developed E. L. Soldatova.
Results. Regardless of the periodization of crisis and inter-crisis periods in adulthood, the level of achieved identity is higher in the crisis periods. Meanwhile, the level of diffused identity is higher in the inter-crisis periods. Differences in identity statuses are mainly inherent to women of Russian ethnic group. The SEI test results showed no significant differences in women identifying themselves with Buryat ethnic group or those of the mixed ethnic group. Certain age periods are characterized by greatest differences in identity statuses. Differences in the achieved identity statuses refer to the period between the 35th and 46th year of age. Women older than 46 years of age demonstrate differences in the diffused identity statuses. During inter-crisis periods, women represent a great number of events that may happen to them in the future, as well as in the period of life that they subjectively refer to the future. During crisis periods, women with the status of achieved identity are characterized by a more detailed representation of their future. During crisis periods, women of Russian ethnic group plan their future in terms of their unique identities. Women of Buryat ethnic group plan their future being guided by social roles attributed to them.
Discussion. The empirical results obtained in this study are compared to those from previous studies in this field. The differences in the results are analyzed in terms of differences in the study samples, cultural aspects, and approaches to studying identity development.
Bogdanova, N. A. (2000). Psychological difficulties in the development of self-identity in primary schoolchildren (Doctoral dissertation). Tula. (in Russ.).
Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial development of women: a critical review of the literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43, 125–151.
Carlsson, J., Wängqvist, M., & Frisén, A. (2015). Identity development in the late twenties: A never ending story. Developmental Psychology, 51(3), 334–345. doi: 10.1037/a0038745
Crocetti, E., Fermani, A., Pojaghi, B., & Meeus, W. (2011). Identity formation in adolescents from Italian, mixed, and migrant families. Child Youth Care Forum, 40, 7–23. doi: 10.1007/s10566-010-9112-8
De Goede, I., Branje, S., & Meeus, W. (2009). Developmental changes and gender differences in adolescents’ perceptions of friendships. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 1105–1123.
Erickson, E. (1996). Childhood and society. St. Petersburg: Universitetskaya kniga. (in Russ.).
Fadjukoff, P., Pulkkinen, L., & Kokko, K. (2016). Identity formation in adulthood: A longitudinal study from age 27 to 50. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 16(1), 8–23, doi: 10.1080/15283488.2015.1121820
Garmaeva, T. V. (2010). Features of ethnic identity in primary schoolchildren and adolescents living in a megalopolis. Psychological studies, 2(10). Retrieved from http://psystudy.ru/index.php/num/2010n2-10/310-garmaeva10.html (in Russ.).
Gfellner, B. M., & Cordoba, A. I. (2017). Identity problems, ego strengths, perceived stress, and adjustment during contextual changes at university. Identity, 17(1), 25–39. doi: 10.1080/15283488.2016.1268961
Hansen, V. A. (2001). Towards a system-based description of human ontogenesis. In V. A. Gansen, L. A. Golovey, Developmental psychology (pp. 81–97). St. Petersburg: Piter. (in Russ.).
Ivanova, N. L. & Mazilova, G. B. (2008). Changes in ethnic and civic identity in the new social environment. Voprosy Psikhologii, 2, 83–93. (in Russ.).
Josselson, R. (1996). Revising herself: The story of women's identity from college to midlife. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.
Kalinina, O. G., & Kholmogorova, A. B. (2007). The influence of fathers’ image on adolescents’ emotional well-being and gender-role identity. Voprosy Psikhologii, 1, 15–26. (in Russ.).
Korotaeva, A. I. (2011). Development of gender identity in primary schoolchildren. Yaroslavskii pedagogicheskii vestnik = Yaroslavl Pedagogical Bulletin, 2(4), 241–244. (in Russ.).
Kroger, J., Martinussen, M., & Marcia, J. E. (2010). Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 683–698. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.11.002
Kuhn, M. H., & McPartland, T. S. (1954). The empirical investigation of self-attitude. American Sociological Review, 19, 68–76.
Kuzmin, M. Yu. (2015). Comparing identities in primary schoolchildren, adolescents, and young people. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal = Siberian Journal of Psychology, 58, 61–75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17223/17267080/58/4 (in Russ.).
Kuzmin, M. Yu. (2016). Dynamics of identities in primary schoolchildren, adolescents, and young people. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal = Siberian Journal of Psychology, 62, 54–66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17223/17267080/62/5 (in Russ.).
Kuzmin, M. Yu. (2018). Associations among the components of identity and its statuses in students. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal = Siberian Journal of Psychology, 69, 69–84. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17223/17267080/69/4 (in Russ.).
Leaders, A. G. (2008). Psychological examination of families. Moscow: Akademiya. (in Russ.).
Levchenko, V. A. (2016). Views of activity and social relations in the works of L. S. Vygotsky and his followers. Young Scientist, 27.1, 18–20. Retrieved from https://moluch.ru/archive/131/35955/ (in Russ.).
Manukyan, V. R. (2002). Classifications and psychological content of crises in adulthood. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta = Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Philosophy and Socio-political studies. (in Russ.).
McLean, K. C., Pasupathi, M. (2012). Processes of identity development: Where I am and how I got there. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 12(1), 8–28. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2011.632363
Meeus, W., van de Schoot, R., Keijsers, L., Schwartz, S. J., & Branje, S. (2010). On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: A five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence. Child Development, 81(5), 1565–1581.
Miklyaeva, A. V. & Rumyantseva, P. V. (2008). Individuals’ social identity: Content, structure, and formation mechanisms. St. Petersburg: Russian State Pedagogical University. (in Russ.).
Mohanty, J. (2013). Ethnic and racial socialization and self-esteem of Asian adoptees: The mediating role of multiple identities. Journal of Adolescence, 36(1), 161–170. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.10.003
Nadelyaeva, Ya. G., & Suturina, L. V. (2018). Polycystic ovary syndrome and menopause. Doctor.Ru, 10(154), 47-50. doi: 10.31550 / 1727-2378-2018-154-10-47-50 (in Russ.).
Pals, J. L. (2006). Narrative identity processing of difficult life experiences: Pathways of personality development and positive self-transformation in adulthood. Journal of Personality, 74(4), 1079–1110. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00403.x
Soldatova, E. L. (2007). The structure and dynamics of the regulatory crisis of transition to adulthood. Chelyabinsk: SUSU. (in Russ.).
Stepanova, E. I. (2000). Adult psychology: Experimental acmeology. St. Petersburg: Aleteiya. (in Russ.).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.