Sensitivity to the Focusing Significance of the Gaze Direction of the Partner at Mentally Retarded Preschoolers

Keywords: theory of mind, attention, joint attention, social cognition, orienting basis of an action, developmental age, preschool age, theory of reason, autism, developmental delay

Abstract

Introduction. The relevance of the study of communication between the mechanism of joint attention and the subsequent normal and abnormal development of the child has been substantiated. It has been shown that a child’s ability to initiate and react to a joint attention of an ontogenetically precedes emergence of social and cognitive abilities. It has been determined a role of the joint attention in the child's ability o integrate information on himself, on other person and ability to unite his own intentions and other person's intentions. The problem of need for solution to a question of how the cognitive development pf the child interferes with development of social experience of the child has been raised.

Methods. Sample group was made by 514 children of preschool age, including the children with developmental disorders which characteristic of different forms of mental retardation. In the section there are descriptions of some techniques: 1. “Wrong opinion test”, “Sally-Ann”; the task “What does Charlie want?”, etc. for assessment of children's understanding of intentions, desires, the interests of others according to behavioural manifestations. 2. The developed task for assessment of ability of using the gaze direction of the character on the picture for the purpose of determination of its intentions. 3. Neuropsychological tests for a research of the block of reception and processing of information.

Results. Potential mechanisms of integration disorder of the joint attention, decrease in recognition of the focusing value of the gaze are revealed. The variability of formation and age changes of joint attention skills, to be exact, existence of differences in recognition, synthesis and interpretation of the focusing social information proceeding from eye contact is shown. It is revealed that children with a developmental delay have a low level of the "descending" joint attention. The parallelism of early deficiency of joint attention and difficulties of processing of information is revealed.

Discussion. The data display synchronism of cognitive development and formation of the mechanism of the joint attention. The conclusion is drawn that difficulties of integrative function of processing of social information can be combined with difficulties of synthesis of separate information signs in a Gestalt, complex information fusion, subject and symbolical orientation in space.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Yana K. Smirnova, Altai State University

Candidate of Psychological Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of General and Applied Psychology, AltSU

References

Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). The autistic child’s theory of mind: a case of specific developmental delay. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 285–297.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mind Blindness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a «theory of mind»? Cognition, 21, 37–46.

Bora, E., & Pantelis, C. (2013). Theory of mind impairments in first-episode psychosis, individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia research, 144(1), 31–36, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2012.12.013

Bora, E., Yucel, M., & Pantelis, C. (2009). Theory of mind impairment in schizophrenia: Metaanalysis. Schizophrenia Research, 109, 1–9. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.12.020.

Broz, F., Lehmann, H., Nehaniv, C. L., & Dautenhahn, K. (2013). Automated analysis of mutual gaze in human conversational pairs. In: Y. Nakano, C. Conati, T. Bader (Eds.), Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces (pp. 41–60). Springer, London. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4784-8_4

Bruner, J. (1985). Child's talk: Learning to Use Language. New York.

Charman, T. (2001). Testing joint attention, imitation, and play as infancy precursors to language and theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 15, 481–498.

Charwarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cuing through eye movement in 2-year-old-children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1122.

Chen, C., Castellanos, I., Yu, C., & Houston, D. M. (2019). Effects of children’s hearing loss on the synchrony between parents’ object naming and children’s attention. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, 101322.

Dawson, G, & Burner, K. (2011). Behavioral interventions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a review of recent findings. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 23(6), 616–620. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e32834cf082

Dawson, G., & Levy, A. (1989). Arousel, attention, and socioemotional impairments of individual with autism. In G. Dawson (Ed.), Autism, Nature, Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 49–74). New York: The Guilford press.

Dawson, G., Jones, E. J., & Merkle, K. (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1150–1159. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.018

Dejan, T. (2006). Geometrical basis of perception of gaze direction. Vision Research, 46(21), 3549–3562.

Delgado, C., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., Yale, M., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison of target locations. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 45, 1715–1719.

Flavell, J. H. (2000). Development of children’s knowledge about the mental world. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24(1). 15–23.

Frith, C. D., & Corcoran, R. (1996). Exploring ‘theory of mind’ in people with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 26(3), 521–530.

Frith, U. (1988). Autism: possible clues to the underlying pathology: Psychological Facts. In L. Wing (Ed.), Aspects of Autism, Biological Research. London: Gaskell, Royal College of Psychiatrics.

Gopnik, A., Capps, L., & Meltzoff, A. (2000). Early theories of mind: what the theory can tell us about autism? In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tagerlusberg, D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding Other Minds. Perspectives from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (pp. 50–72). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harrington, L., Siegert, R. J., & McClure, J. (2005). Theory of mind in schizophrenia: a critical review. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 10(4), 249–286. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546800444000056

Hobson, R. P. (2005). What puts the jointness in joint attention? In J. Roessler (Ed.), Joint attention: Communication and Other Minds (pp. 185–204). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jayaraman, S., Fausey, C. M., & Smith, L. B. (2017). Why are faces denser in the visual experiences of younger than older infants? Developmental Psychology, 53(1), 38–49. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000230

Johnson, L., Sullivan, B., Hayhoe, M., & Ballard, D. (2014). Predicting human visuomotor behaviour in a driving task. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 369(1636). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0044

Kasari, C. (1990). Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 87–100.

Lebedinskaya, K. S. (2005). Basic issues of clinical findings and systematization of a developmental delay. Almanac of the Institute of Special Needs Education, 9. Retrieved from https://alldef.ru/ru/articles/almanah-9/osnovnye-voprosy-kliniki-i-sistematiki

Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation: the origins of “theory of mind”. Psychological Review, 94(4), 412–426. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.4.412

Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1988). Autistic children's understanding of seeing, knowing and believing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 315–324.

Lewis, V., & Bouche, J. (1988). Spontaneous, instructed and elicited play in relatively able autistic children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 325–339.

MacPherson, A. C., & Moore, C. (2007). Attentional control by gaze cues in infancy. In R. Flomm, K. Lee, D. Muir (Eds.), Gaze-Following: Its Development and Significance (pp. 53–76). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mazza, M., Costagliola, C., Di Michele, V., Magliani, V., Pollice, R., Ricci, A., … Galzio, R. J. (2007). Deficit of social cognition in subjects with surgically treated frontal lobe lesions and in subjects affected by schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 257(1), 12–22.

Mumme, D. (2007). Infants’ use of gaze cues to interpret others’ actions and emotional reactions. In R. Flomm, K. Lee, D. Muir (Eds.), Gaze-Following: Its Development and Significance (pp. 143–170). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mundy, P. (2003). A manual for the Abridged Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS). Miami: University of Miami Psychology Department.

Mundy, P. (2003). Annotation: the neural basis of social impairments in autism: the role of the dorsal medial-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate system. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44, 793–809.

Mundy, P., & Sigman, M. (2006). Joint attention, social competence and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti, D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology (2nd ed., Vol. 1: Theory and methods, pp. 293–332). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Mundy, P., Block, J., Delgado, C., Pomares, Y., Van Hecke, A. V., & Parlade, M. V. (2007). Individual differences and the development of joint attention in infancy. Child Development, 78(3), 938–954. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01042.x

Mundy, P., Sullivan, L., & Mastergeorge, A. M. (2009). A parallel and distributed-processing model of joint attention, social cognition, and autism. Autism research, 2, 2–21.

Ozonoff, S. (1997). Components of executive function in autism and other disorders. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 179–211). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Perner, J. (1989). Experimental awareness and children's episodic memory. In W. Schneider, F. E. Weinert (Eds.), Interactions among Aptitudes, Strategies and Knowledge in Cognitive Performance. New York: Springer Verlag.

Perner, J., Frith, U., Leslie, A. M., & Leekam, S. R. (1989). Exploration of the autistic child's theory of mind: knowledge, belief, and communication. Child Development, 60(3), 688–700.

Russell, T., & Sharma, T. (2003). Social cognition at the neural level: Investigations in autism, psychopathy and schizophrenia. In C. Brune, M. Ribbert, H. Schiefenhovel (Eds.), The Social Brain. Evolution and Pathology (pp. 253–276). UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Scaife, M., & Bruner, J. (1975). The capacity for joint visual attention in the infant. Nature, 253, 265–266.

Sergienko, E. A., Lebedeva, E. I. & Prusakova, O. A. (2009). Theory of mind as a basis of formation of self-conception and introjection in human ontogenesis. M.: Publishing house of the Institute of psychology of RAS. (in Russ.).

Shumskaya, N. A. (2013). Structural and level assessment of intelligence at preschool children with a development delay of organic brain genesis (Candidate Dissertation). St. Petersburg.

Skvortsov, I. A., Apeksimova, O. A. & Petrakova, V. S. (2002). A Study of a Developmental Profile of psychoneurology functions in infants up to 7 years and psychological disorder correction. Recourse book. M.: Trivola.

Slone, L. K., Abney, D. H., Borjon, J. I., Chen, C. H., Franchak, J. M., Pearcy, D., … Yu, C. (2018). Gaze in Action: Head-mounted Eye Tracking of Children's Dynamic Visual Attention During Naturalistic Behavior. Vis. Exp., 141, 58496. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58496

Suarez-Rivera, C., Smith, L. B., & Yu, C. (2019). Multimodal parent behaviors within joint attention support sustained attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 55(1), 96–109.

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Brain and Behavior Sciences, 28, 675–690.

Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). A meta-analysis of Theory-of-Mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72(3), 655–684.

Yemelina, D. A. & Makarov, I. V. (2018). Developmental delay at children (analytical summary). Review of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, 1, 4–12. (in Russ.).

Yu, C., & Smith, L. B. (2017). Hand-Eye Coordination Predicts Joint Attention. Child Development, 88(6), 2060–2078.

Zlokazova, M. V. (2004). Mental retardation (clinical-and-psychological, comparative age-dependent and rehabilitation aspects) (Doctoral Dissertation). St. Petersburg.
Published
2019-10-20
How to Cite
Smirnova, Y. K. (2019). Sensitivity to the Focusing Significance of the Gaze Direction of the Partner at Mentally Retarded Preschoolers. Russian Psychological Journal, 16(3), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.21702/rpj.2019.3.1
Section
Correctional psychology