A Comparative Analysis of Hardiness Among Different Generations in Contemporary Russia

Keywords: generation, psychology of generations, hardiness, involvement, control, risk taking, Soviet generation, transitional generation, post-Soviet generation, generational differences

Abstract

Introduction. Studying the characteristics of hardiness among different generations merits special attention. The comparative analysis of the levels of hardiness and its individual components among representatives of Soviet, post-Soviet, and transitional generations has not been reported before.

Methods. The study of hardiness among different generations employed the Hardiness Test by D. A. Leontiev and E. I. Rasskazova and involved 540 individual participants (234 men and 306 women) aged from 16 to 84 years.

Results. The variance analysis was applied to reveal differences in hardiness and its structural components among the three generational groups. The levels of hardiness and its components differed significantly in the groups of respondents of the Soviet and transitional generations. Compared to the transitional generation group, the levels of control (p ≤ 0.0001), risk taking (p ≤ 0.0001), and hardiness (p ≤ 0.0001) were higher among representatives of the post-Soviet generation; the lowest levels of these variables were observed in the group of representatives of the Soviet generation. Compared to female respondents of the transitional and Soviet generations, males had higher levels of control (p ≤ 0.0001), risk taking (p ≤ 0.05) and hardiness (p ≤ 0.05).

Discussion. The level of hardiness differs among generational and gender groups. The findings of the study suggest that the characteristics of hardiness should be investigated in late adulthood. This study has great potential for practical application for developing psychological programs for improving personal potential of vulnerable generations.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nadezhda V. Sivrikova, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University

Кандидат психологических наук, доцент кафедры социальной работы, педагогики и психологии Южно-уральского государственного гуманитарно-педагогического университета

Margarita I. Postnikova, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov

Доктор психологических наук, профессор, Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова

Elena L. Soldatova, Saint Petersburg State University

Доктор психологичсеких наук, процессор Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета

Tat'yana G. Ptashko, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University

Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры социальной работы, педагогики и психологии Южно-уральского государственного гуманитарно-педагогического университета

Elena G. Chernikova, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University

Кандидат социологических наук, доцент кафедры социальной работы, педагогики и психологии Южно-уральского государственного гуманитарно-педагогического университета

Anna A. Shevchenko, South Ural State University

Кандидат психологических наук, доцент Южно-уральского государственного университета

References

Maddi S. Hardiness training at Illinois bell telephone. In: J. P. Opatz (ed.). Health promotion evaluation. Stevens Point (WI), National Wellness Institute, 1987, pp. 101–115.

Ovsyanik O. A., Fominova A. N. Characteristics of hardiness in women of different age groups. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologicheskie nauki – Bulletin of Moscow State Regional University. Series: Psychology, 2015, no. 2, pp. 28–33 (in Russian).

Leont'ev D. A. (ed.) Lichnostnyi potentsial. Struktura i diagnostika [Personal potential: Structure and diagnosis]. Moscow, Smysl Publ., 2011. 680 p.

Eksakusto T. V., Duganova Yu. K. Development of personal potential in subjects of psychological security. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya – Modern Problems of Science and Education, 2013, no. 6, p. 835 (in Russian).

Evtushenko E. A. Personal hardiness as a psychological phenomenon. Lichnost', sem'ya i obshchestvo: voprosy pedagogiki i psikhologii – Personality, Family and Society: The Issues of Pedagogy and Psychology, 2016, no. 60, pp. 72–78 (in Russian).

Zakernichnaya N. V. Theoretical understanding of the concept of hardiness in domestic and foreign researches. Uchenye zapiski Zabaikal'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogicheskie nauki – Scholarly Notes of Transbaikal State University. Series: Pedagogical Sciences, 2016, V. 11, no. 5, pp. 61–66 (in Russian).

Nikitina E. V. Phenomenon of hardiness: Concept, modern views, and research. Academy, 2017, no. 4 (19), pp. 100–103 (in Russian).

Postnikova M. I. Characteristics of hardiness in young people. Nauchnyi dialog – Scientific Dialogue, 2016, no. 1 (49), pp. 298–310 (in Russian).

Leont'ev D. A., Rasskazova E. I. Test zhiznestoikosti [Hardiness test]. Moscow, Smysl Publ., 2006. 63 p.

Maddi S. R. et al. Relationship of hardiness, grit, and emotional intelligence to internet addiction, excessive consumer spending, and gambling. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2013, V. 8, Issue 2, pp. 128–134. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2012.758306

Abdollahi A. et al. The role of hardiness in decreasing stress and suicidal ideation in a sample of undergraduate students. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2015, V. 55, Issue 2, pp. 202–222. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167814543952

Abdollahi A., Abu Talib M. Hardiness, spirituality, and suicidal ideation among individuals with substance abuse: The moderating role of gender and marital status. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 2015, V. 11, Issue 1, pp. 12–21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15504263.2014.988558

Britt T. W. et al. How much do we really know about employee resilience? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2016, V. 9, Issue 2, pp. 378–404. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/iop.2015.107

Merino-Tejedor E. et al. Hardiness as a moderator variable between the Big-Five Model and work effort. Personality and Individual Differences, 2015, V. 85, pp. 105–110. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.044

Salim J. et al. Examining hardiness, coping and stress-related growth following sport injury. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2016, V. 28, Issue 2, pp. 154–169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1086448

Wadey R. et al. An examination of hardiness throughout the sport-injury process: A qualitative follow-up study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2012, V. 17, Issue 4, pp. 872–893. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02084.x

Adriaenssens J. et al. Determinants and prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses: A systematic review of 25 years of research. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2015, V. 52, Issue 2, pp. 649–661. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.11.004

De la Vega R. et al. Hardiness in professional Spanish firefighters. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2013, V. 117, Issue 2, pp. 608–614. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/15.PMS.117x19z4

Taylor M. K. et al. Relationships of hardiness to physical and mental health status in military men: a test of mediated effects. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2013, V. 36, Issue 1, pp. 1–9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-011-9387-8

Thomassen A. G. et al. The combined influence of hardiness and cohesion on mental health in a military peacekeeping mission: A prospective study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2015, V. 56, Issue 5, pp. 560–566. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12235

Bezdjian S. et al. Resilience in the United States Air Force: Psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Psychological Assessment, 2017, V. 29, Issue 5, pp. 479–485. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000370

Maddi S., Harvey R. Hardiness considered across cultures. In: P. T. P. Wong, L. C. J. Wong (eds.) Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping. N.Y., Springer, 2006, pp. 409–426.

Maddi S. R. et al. The personality construct of hardiness, V: Relationships with the construction of existential meaning in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2011, V. 51, Issue 3, pp. 369–388. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167810388941

Gerber M. et al. Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? Stress and Health, 2013, V. 29, Issue 2, pp. 164–171. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2447

Pitts B. L. et al. Effects of hardiness and years of military service on posttraumatic stress symptoms in U.S. Army medics. Military Psychology, 2016, V. 28, Issue 4, pp. 278–284. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/mil0000106

Robinson J. S. et al. Relations between resilience, positive and negative emotionality, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2014, V. 6 (Supple 1), pp. S92–S98. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033733

Soldatova E. L., Shlyapnikova I. A. Ego-identity in the structure of personality maturity. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013, V. 86, pp. 283–288. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.565

Kamtsios S., Karagiannopoulou E. Conceptualizing students’ academic hardiness dimensions: a qualitative study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2013, V. 28, Issue 3, pp. 807–823. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0141-6

Wang Y.-L., Tsai C.-C. Taiwanese students’ science learning self-efficacy and teacher and student science hardiness: a multilevel model approach. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2016, V. 31, Issue 4, pp. 537–555. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10212-015-0285-2

Vindeker O. S., Klimenskikh M. V. Psychometric facets of antifragility: tolerance of ambiguity, hardiness, and growth. Rossiiskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal – Russian Psychological Journal, 2016, V. 13, no. 3, pp. 107–122 (in Russian). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21702/rpj.2016.3.7

Viola M. M. et al. Psychological well‐being and career indecision in emerging adulthood: The moderating role of hardiness. The Career Development Quarterly, 2016, V. 64, Issue 4, pp. 387–396. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cdq.12073

Lushchevskaya O. V. Hardiness and the stress in young and elderly women. Tyumenskii meditsinskii zhurnal – Tyumen Medical Journal, 2016, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 8–11 (in Russian).

Gvozdetskaya V. K. Psychological features of men and women in various periods of age crises. Sciences of Europe, 2016, no. 9–4 (9), pp. 12–24 (in Russian).

Bystrova T. V. Features of hardiness of male and female convicts. Fundamental'nye i prikladnye issledovaniya v sovremennom mire – Fundamental and Applied Research in the Modern World, 2016, no. 14–3, pp. 101–103 (in Russian).

Petrova L. V. Gender characteristics of value orientations and hardiness among students. Pedagogicheskoe obrazovanie v Rossii – Pedagogical Education in Russia, 2015, no. 1, pp. 139–141 (in Russian).

Politika O. I. Hardiness and coping behavior in senile age: gender aspect. Obshchestvo: sotsiologiya, psikhologiya, pedagogika – Society: Sociology, Psychology, and Pedagogy, 2016, no. 12, pp. 71–74 (in Russian).

Sivrikova N. V. Problems in research on generations in psychology. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya – Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2015, V. 11, no. 2, pp. 100–107 (in Russian). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/chp.2015110210

Pishchik V. I., Gavrilova A. V., Sivrikova N. V. Styles of intergenerational pedagogical interaction of teachers and students of different generational groups. Rossiiskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal – Russian Psychological Journal, 2016, V. 13, no. 3, pp. 245–264 (in Russian). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21702/rpj.2016.3.14

Ivanova E. S., Lasnova D. S. Relationship between hardiness and different types of gender identity among today’s youth. Innovatsii v nauke – Innovations in Science, 2016, no. 57–2, pp. 66–70 (in Russian).

Ryabko T. V. Gender differences of motivational sphere, hardiness and emotional intelligence among police officers–psychologists. Obshchestvo: sotsiologiya, psikhologiya, pedagogika – Society: Sociology, Psychology, and Pedagogy, 2017, no. 8, pp. 85–88 (in Russian).

Ilyaeva I. A., Savenkova I. V. Sociological approach to gender relations in the management system. Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta – Bulletin of the Orenburg State University, 2007, no. 5, pp. 4–10 (in Russian).
Geodakyan S. V. Dva pola. Zachem i pochemu? Evolyutsionnaya teoriya pola [Two sexes. Why? The evolutionary theory of sex]. Moscow, Samizdat Publ., 2011. 230 p.
Published
2019-03-31
How to Cite
Sivrikova, N. V., Postnikova, M. I., Soldatova, E. L., Ptashko, T. G., Chernikova, E. G., & Shevchenko, A. A. (2019). A Comparative Analysis of Hardiness Among Different Generations in Contemporary Russia. Russian Psychological Journal, 16(1), 144-165. https://doi.org/10.21702/rpj.2019.1.7
Section
Social psychology