Scale of Personal Problems in Everyday Life: Conceptual Justification and Psychometric Development
Introduction. Theoretical and methodological issues of psychology of personal problem solving in everyday life have been underrepresented in Russian research literature. For the first time, the authors develop, pilot-test, and validate a new technique for diagnosing personal problems of everyday life.
Methods. The sample was comprised of 506 individual participants (aged 17-67 years) from general population and of 43 patients of the psycho-neurological department and the department of borderline states (aged 18-50 years). The study used the following techniques for construct validation of the pilot version of the Scale: (a) Life Satisfaction Scale; (b) Positive and Negative Affect Scale; (c) Five-Factor Personality Inventory; (d) Life Orientation Test (Russian modification); and (e) Hardiness Survey (Russian modification).
Results and Discussion. This section (a) describes the procedure of developing the Scale and eliminating non-valid items, (b) examines the factor structure of the questionnaire, (c) determines its construct, structural, and differential validity, and (d) discusses the results of studying age, gender, social, and demographic differences in the general level of problematization of life and the manifestation of specific types of everyday problems. The authors compared the findings obtained in pilot testing with those described in previous studies and demonstrated their similarity. The study provides diagnostic norms for the Scale scores. The proposed technique has great potential for further research (collecting empirical data in various subject areas of psychology) and psychodiagnostic (supporting the consultative and psychotherapeutic process and clinical practice) applications.
Conclusion. The authors draw the conclusion that the developed technique manifests relevant measurement properties and can be recommended for use in psychological research and practice. Further psychometric development of the Scale will involve determining test-retest reliability, assessing the impact of social desirability on the results, as well as differentiating and specifying test norms on larger samples.
Gusel'tseva M. S. Everyday life psychology: methodology, history and perspectives. Psychological Studies, 2017, Vol. 10, no. 51, p. 12. Available at: http://psystudy.ru (Accessed 05 September 2018).
Martsinkovskaya T. D. Modern psychology: Challenges of transitivity. Psychological Studies, 2015, Vol. 8, no. 42, p. 1. Available at: http://psystudy.ru (Accessed 05 September 2018).
Costa P. T., Jr., Widiger T. A. (eds.) Personality disorders and five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002. 493 p.
Piedmont R. L., Sherman M. F., Sherman N. C., Dy-Liacco G. S., Williams J. E. Using the five-factor model to identify a new personality disorder domain: the case for experiential permeability. Journal of Personal Social Psychology,
2009, Vol. 96, pp. 1245–1258.
Pincus A. L., Wiggins J. S. Interpersonal Problems and Conceptions of Personality Disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 1990, Vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 342–352.
Widiger T. A., Costa P. T., Jr., McCrae R. R. A proposal for Axis II: Diagnosing personality disorders using the five-factor model. In: P. T. Costa, Jr., T. A. Widiger (eds.) Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2002, pp. 431–456.
Widiger T. A., Mullins-Sweatt S. N. Clinical utility of a dimensional model of personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2010, Vol. 41 (6), pp. 488–494.
McCrae R. R., Lockenhoff C. E., Costa P. T. A step toward DSM‐V: cataloguing personality related problems in living. European Journal of Personality, 2005, Vol. 19 (4), pp. 269–286.
Ozer D. J., Benet-Martínez V. Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual Review of Psychology, 2006, Vol. 57, pp. 401–421.
Piedmont R. L., Sherman M. F., Barrickman L. Brief psychosocial assessment of a clinical sample: an evaluation of the Personal Problems Checklist for Adults. Assessment, 2000, Vol. 7 (2), pp. 177–187.
Boudreaux M. J. Personality-related problems and the five-factor model of personality. Personal Disorders, 2016, Vol. 7(4), pp. 372–383.