Применение компьютерных игровых технологий для развития регуляторных функций дошкольников

Aleksandr N. Veraksa, Daria A. Bukhalenkova


Аннотация


Введение. Авторами показывается актуальность использования и разработки компьютерных приложений для детей дошкольного возраста с целью развития регуляторных функций. В работе впервые представлен обзор зарубежных исследований, посвященных компьютерным игровым методам развития регуляторных функций.

Теоретическое обоснование. В статье описывается модель регуляторных функций А. Мияке, а также культурно-исторический подход, на который опирались авторы при проведении теоретического исследования.

Результаты. Данный раздел включает рассмотрение основных причин популярности использования и разработки развивающих компьютерных игр и их преимуществ перед стандартными методами: наличие данных о развивающем эффекте существующих игр, о положительном влиянии такого формата тренировочных заданий на мотивацию, возможность гибко адаптировать игру под уровень тренирующегося и более высокая экологичность выполняемых заданий. В обзоре проанализированы существующие программы и приложения по развитию регуляторных функций у детей дошкольного возраста, требующие участия родителей или воспитателей в процессе тренировки, а также направленные на организацию взаимодействия сверстников. Также в статье рассмотрены основные принципы создания развивающих игр, способных не только адаптироваться к уровню развития пользователя, но и поддерживать необходимую мотивацию во время тренировки регуляторных функций. В исследованиях, посвященных созданию развивающих видеоигр, подчеркивается значение заучивания испытуемым определенных наборов действий и применение их в соответствующей ситуации для развития памяти и процессов торможения, а также значимость заданий на скорость для развития когнитивной гибкости.

Обсуждение результатов. Авторы сопоставляют проанализированные разработки в области компьютерных игровых методов и выделяют наиболее значимые черты, способные оказывать развивающее воздействие на регуляторные функции в дошкольном возрасте, что может стать основанием как для оценки уже имеющихся приложений, так и для разработки новых компьютерных видеоигр, направленных на развитие регуляторных функций.


Ключевые слова


регуляторные функции; рабочая память; когнитивная гибкость; сдерживающий контроль; саморегуляция; рефлексия; игра; компьютерные приложения; видеоигры; дошкольный возраст

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Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21702/rpj.2017.3.6

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